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不能说高考命题一定就比模拟题好。唯高考题为上不是正确的打开方式。命题质量关键看命题经验的积累、语篇解读的把握。高考命题时间也就是二十天不到,平时命题也要一个月准备。试看看,全国卷命题质量,尤其今年的,很平庸。我们只能从概率上说,高考题比大部分老师命题好,但就大市级的模拟题而言,往往不分上下。笔者也比较推崇高考题,但一定会精选。

命题绝对是苦活,而命好题更是难上加难。但必须认识到:命题又是其乐无穷的事情。我认为:学会命题是,绝对是,一个老师成长的关键,而且一定是最好的捷径。(我见过太多这样的老师,我本人也是这样的例子。)很遗憾的是,很多不会命题的人,往往对命题者的命题各种嘲笑,而不是去学习他们的命题长处。普通老师的命题缺点何尝不是高考命题人的缺点?笔者命题十余年了,命题阅读少说也有五百篇吧。命题涉及到五个方面的理解:

理解高考试题的方向;

理解课标和考试说明;

理解学生的思维薄弱;

理解语篇解读的常识;

理解命题的基本常识。

就命题而言,我的建议就是:命题人心中要对历年高考真题的命题特点非常熟悉,然后认真学习一些文本解读的理论。至于命题测试的理论,也是汗牛充栋,我自己也没有阅读多少,因为这里还涉及到效度等各种测量工具的使用。至于命题的基本常识可以看看李筱菊的《语言测试的艺术》,浅显易懂,就那么几条,牢记在心即可。

关键还是在于:实践。

命题是高度讲究实践的活。空谈理论一点用也没有。只有实实在在动手才知道其中甘苦。这里面要讲过三关:

第一、选材。

这要求命题人经常阅读外刊,并且把各种好的话题的文章都保留下来。不过真正做到这一点的人真不多啊。

高考选材特点:

一定具有比较大的信息差。即:你不能选一篇大家一看标题就知道里面的内容了。譬如你选水污染的文章,这种文章估计大家一看就知道里面谈什么了。除非角度很新,譬如16年的环保文章,说的各个国家采取非常新颖的对待温室效应的手段。老话题,但装新酒,这是最好的命题文章。但这类文章可遇不可求。

一定是切合课标话题。我们课标话题没有什么暴力,吸毒,战争之类的,遇到这种话题必须淘汰。

一定是层次分明的文章。很多文章上面要求都符合,但层次看起来乱,也不能选。读者看看高考文章,绝对是标准的语篇结构鲜明的文章。有很多文章段落很零碎,譬如一句话一段,一下子20几段,这种文章不能要,要么你就要大刀阔斧进行合并。

话题介于新与不新之间。高考文章,基本没有时政性太强的。环境、健康、科技、人物是四大长青树话题。

第二、加工材料。

如果选材做好了,那么后面两步就容易了。多数情况下,材料不好,导致后面命题不下去,只好返工。在加工前,请做好以下笔记:

划分文章的结构层次;

每个层次的要点在哪;

每个层次的写作方式有哪些;

每个层次里的事实和观点分别是哪些。

所谓要点基本就是题眼(即命题的着眼点)。这一步和语篇解读的经验有关。如果遇到题眼少,不建议继续加工了。要不请再找同样话题的文章,截取部分内容进行补充。这也是高考命题的一种方式,很少,但存在。

文章太长,必然要删减。但是我建议在命题结束后进行删减。过早删减会把必要的信息漏掉了。

第三步、命题

大家看到,真正的命题其实占用时间并不多。前面工作做好了,后面就顺畅了。有时一气呵成都有可能。命题要注意:

各个问题不能相互重复或者相互印证(这是命题者最常见的问题,一定不能出现第一题答案在第二题题干出现或找到暗示。)

干扰项尽量避免无中生有,要基于文章中的事实,最起码也是基于事实的错误联想。费解题基本都是脱离文章的事实,或者引申离谱了。命题人任何时候不要掺杂自己的感情色彩和观点,一切以作者的观点和事实为出发点。

每道题考查什么都应该有谱,不能所有题都考查获取信息。

读者可以参考:

探索| 孙三五:实例说明我在英语语篇解读中使用的七种武器

实例说明

(整篇文章在文末)

一篇文章出得好不好全在于命题人是否吃透了文章,下面是文章大意。由于火车上仓促写成,理论上应该再仔细检查。如果出现错误或欠妥,请读者多包涵,并欢迎提出修改的意见。

Para。1: 未来高等教育的两种预测:经济发展需要更高层次的教育;学费上涨、传统学位被替代,上大学的人会更少。

Para。2-3:Bryan Alexander 说这是前所未有的学习好时代,但连续六年大学招收人数减少。他认为一些大学为了生存,既要服务于高中生也要选择招收成年学生。

Para。4:Rafael Bras院长和分管学术的副院长认为为了保持学费的可支付性、大学的卓越性和有大学可上,需要改变一些做法。

Para。5-8:委员会的报告包括许多引人入胜的观点,但其中三种指向迥然不同的大学未来的可能性:一、大学即生活,而不仅仅是大学四年的时光;二、职业生涯导师团队;三、大学分布在世界各地。

Para。9-10:佐治亚理工大学设想未来的大学能融合面对面教学和网络教学,在某些方面,“中庭”观点是对传统大学的认可。

Para。11:虽然佐治亚理工大学的想法是否会具体化还不清楚,但灵活、转变能满足紧急需求。总之,不论是否愿意,大学即将进入到深入改革时期。

1 Predictions about higher education‘s future often result in two very different visions about what is next for colleges and universities。In one camp: those who paint a rosy picture of an economy that will continue to demand higher levels of education for an increasing share of the workforce。In the other: those who believe fewer people will enroll(入学)in college as tuition costs go out of control and alternatives to the traditional degree emerge。

第一题考查:获取、理解事实性的具体信息。

1。What can we learn from the two camps’ opinions about future colleges?

A。Future workforce will have high levels of education。

B。The expensive traditional degree is losing its appeal。

C。Traditional higher education is not practical。

D。Declining enrollment in college results from easy learning。

首段的写作方式非常明显。在比较处(comparison)应该关注:二者的相同和不同;二者的侧重点在哪一方。

文章说未来工作需要高层次的教育水平劳动力,但不等于说未来的劳动力就会拥有高水平,这也是后面要解决的问题,故A项错,属于过度延申;文中说学费高加上可替代传统学历的东西的出现使得很多人不愿意上大学,这就相当于传统学历正在失去吸引力,故B项正确;C选项的not practical文章没有提到,或者说是过度延申。D选项是对We are living in an incredible age for learning, when there‘s so much knowledge available的曲解,在第二段,作者说一方面知识很容易获得,另一方面大学入学率减少,二者都是目前大学教育的事实的两个方面,但作者并没有说明二者之间存在因果关系。我们读文都是基于文章的客观事实,推导作者的态度,而不是用我们读者的态度去代替作者的态度。

2 “We are living in an age for learning, when there’s so much knowledge available, that one would think that this is good news for higher education,” Bryan Alexander told me recently。Alexander writes often about the future of higher education and is finishing a book on the subject for Johns Hopkins University Press。“Yet we‘ve seen enrollment in higher education drop for six years。”

3 Alexander believes that for some colleges and universities to survive, they need to shift from their historical mission of serving one type of student (usually a teenager fresh out of high school) for a specific period of time。“We’re going to see many different ways through higher education in the future,” Alexander said, “from closer ties between secondary and postsecondary(中学后)schools to new options for adults。The question is, which institutions adopt new models and which try desperately to hang on to what they have。”

第二题考查:获取、理解事实性的具体信息。

2。What should traditional colleges do according to Alexander?

A。They should provide new options for adults to enter colleges。(receive ? pass through)

B。The should strengthen the ties between secondary and postsecondary schools。

C。They should abandon what they have and change their historical mission。

D。They should offer more freedom to students throughout their life。

从第二段开始,作者就开始引用Alexander的观点。对于引用观点,基本都是围绕:观点证明什么;观点的特别之处;观点的表达方式;观点透露哪些鲜明的感情色彩。

我们抓住这些关键句:

Yet we‘ve seen enrollment in higher education drop for six years。(这是事实)

shift from their historical mission of serving one type of student from …to… (这是观点性的建议)

many different pathways through higher education in the future(这是观点性的预测)

adopt new models(这是观点性的判断)

分析事实和观点在命题中很重要,基本不好的题都是混淆了二者。A选项错在enter,文章说的是ways through higher education;B项是过去的途径,本题也是2016年D篇命题方式的借鉴;C选项错在abandon,绝对化了,文章说shift(转变),而不是放弃,这和2013年的71题干扰相似,即:文:we shouldn’t blame technology for our shortcomings –》Technology can never be blamed。D选项和本段的“new options, from a specific period of time”相对应,而且下文也有College for life, rather than just four years可以印证。

4 “The fact is that to maintain affordability, accessibility and excellence, something needs to change,” Rafael Bras, Georgia Tech‘s provost (院长) and executive vice(副的) president for academic affairs, told me when he unveiled the report at the Milken Institute Global Conference this past spring。

5 The commission’s report includes many impressive ideas, but three point to the possibility of a very different future for colleges and universities。

1) College for life, rather than just four years。(3)The primary recommendation of the Georgia Tech report is that the university turns itself into a place for lifelong learning that allows students to “associate rather than enroll。”

“Students who we educate now are expected to have a dozen occupations,” Bras said。“So a system that receives students once in their lives and turns them out with the Good Housekeeping seal(印章) of approval to become alums (校友) and come back on occasion and give money is not the right model for the future。”

2) A network of advisers and coaches for a career。If education never ends, Georgia Tech predicts, neither should the critical advising function that colleges provide to students。The commission outlines a plan in which artificial intelligence and virtual tutors help advise students about selecting courses and finding the best career options。But even for a university focused on science and technology, Georgia Tech doesn‘t suggest in its report that computers will replace humans for all advising。

3) A distributed presence around the world。Colleges and universities operate campuses and require students to come to them。In the past couple of decades, online education has grown greatly, but for the most part, higher education is still about face-to-face interactions。

第三题考查:根据文中事实和线索作出简单的判断和推理

3。What can we infer from the commission’s report?

A。Students can return for further study or make donations freely after graduation。

B。Artificial intelligence and virtual tutors will perform better in career guidance。

C。It focuses on how to make people enjoy good education without stress。

D。There is no point in requiring students to be present at school。

本段提到了三个要点,肯定要命题,历年江苏考题都如此。只是命题角度很丰富,一般都是针对各个要点的特别之处在哪(近的2018年B篇和2017年D篇就是如此)。

既然是报告,就要抓住核心:

to maintain affordability, accessibility and excellence(这是说报告目的)

So a system that receives students once in their lives…and give money is not the right model for the future。(这里的so可以看作是总结,而且总结里含有对比纠正以往错误的意思,可以参考:2018年B篇第三题)

But even …Georgia Tech doesn‘t suggest in its report that computers will replace humans for all advising。(这里转折实际上是作者的态度所在)

Colleges and universities operate campuses and require students to come to them。(这是过去的做法,作者主要是为了对比)

笔者这里要强调的是,题眼所在处基本有隐形或显性的衔接词。

A选项的make donations和原文的give money is not the right model相悖;B选项是借鉴2016年62题C项:Rich countries’ gains are greater than their losses,文章没有比较;C选项是The fact is that to maintain affordability, accessibility and excellence的理解;D选项是对Colleges and universities operate campuses and require students to come to them的曲解,作者用它作比较对象,但突出的不是它。本题命题手法类似2017年D篇最后一题。

9 Georgia Tech imagines a future in which thetwo worlds are blended in what it calls the “atrium” — a place that share space with entrepreneurs and become gathering places for students and alumni (校友)。

第四题考查:根据上下文提供的线索推测生词的词义。

4。The underlined words “two worlds” refer to _______。

A。Basic education and higher education

B。entrepreneurs and students

C。present education and future education

D。virtual education and real classes

出现指代词的地方,可以考查:这个指代词指代什么。这是比较普通的命题。如果再高一点,就是围绕指代词所在句子进行整体命题,但解题核心还是要落在指代词的理解上。本题不难。

10 In some ways, as the report noted, the atrium idea is a nod to the past, when universities had agricultural and engineering experiment stations with services closer to where people in the state needed them。

11 Whether Georgia Tech‘s ideas will become real is, of course, unclear。But as Alexander told me after reading it, “There is a strong emphasis on flexibility and transformation so they can meet emergent trends。” This is clear: colleges and universities are about to undergo a period of deep change — whether they want to or not — as the needs of students and the economy shift。

第五题考查:理解作者的观点、意图和态度

5。What does the author think of atrium idea?

A。It corresponds to the past idea in some way。

B。It is hard to realize despite its flexibility。

C。It makes some industries more accessible。

D。It is a practical solution to the declining enrollment。

这两段涉及到一个新概念:atrium idea,注意只要出现新概念的地方,必然会产生信心差,可以围绕:内容、影响、因果、评价四个方面来命题。由于atrium idea的内容上面已经或多或少有说明,这里剩下:

a nod to past, closer to …, unclear等,这几个词从不同角度对atrium进行了评价。

针对最后两段的内部逻辑考查,A项是对a nod to…的误解;B项是对末段的unclear的混淆;C项弄错了因果,倒数第二段的when…说到大学里有农业等实验部门的服务可以和有需求的人更加靠近,但这是为了论证a nod to past,不是为了说明atrium idea的特点。简化一下就是:A-->B<C,但不能说A-->C。

第六题考查:理解文章的宏观结构和内部逻辑关系。本篇层次非常分明,和高考选材非常靠近。

6。The passage mainly talks about _________。

A。a reflection on the drawbacks of current higher education

B。the key factors which determine higher education’s future

C。two camps‘ opposite opinions about higher education’s future

D。a comparison between traditional and future higher education

命题方式有两种:一是类似北京卷的语篇示意图题;二是直接问文章标题或主题。我取后者。

这种命题必须结合语篇的特点来,例如本文属于:问题——解决类的,江苏考题在2015年和2016年涉及到三题,而且命题手法一致。这样的题目正确选项一定要把解决方案包括进去。这种题目的正确选项比较好出,因为选文就有了标题。难在干扰项。

本题命题风格类似2915年B篇60题D。The management of e-waste。A项是针对文章的一个方面; C项针对首段,因为首段一般都是概括主旨,但本文它只是个introduction;虽然文章很多地方都把目前的高等教育方式和未来的进行比较,但比较的重点在寻找途径上,故D选项错。

原文删减后(610个词)

College for life and virtual advisers may be key in higher education‘sfuture

为了生活上大学虚拟顾问是高等教育未来的关键

By Jeffrey J。Selingo

来源:华盛顿邮报2018-07-09

1 Predictions about higher education’s future often result in two very different visions about what is next for colleges and universities。In one camp: those who paint a rosy picture of an economy that will continue to demand higher levels of education for an increasing share of the workforce。In the other: those who believe fewer people will enroll(入学)in college as tuition costs go out of control and alternatives to the traditional degree emerge。

2 “We are living in an age for learning, when there‘s so much knowledge available, that one would think that this is good news for higher education,” Bryan Alexander told me recently。Alexander writes often about the future of higher education 信游娱乐 and is finishing a book on the subject for Johns Hopkins University Press。“Yet we’ve seen enrollment in higher education drop for six years。”

3 Alexander believes that for some colleges and universities to survive, they need to shift from their historical mission of serving one type of student (usually a teenager fresh out of high school) for a specific period of time。“We‘re going to see many different ways through higher education in the future,” Alexander said, “from closer ties between secondary and postsecondary(中学后)schools to new options for adults。The question is, which institutions adopt new models and which try desperately to hang on to what they have。”

4 “The fact is that to maintain affordability, accessibility and excellence, something needs to change,” Rafael Bras, Georgia Tech’s provost (院长) and executive vice(副的) president for academic affairs, told me when he unveiled the report at the Milken Institute Global Conference this past spring。

5 The commission‘s report includes many impressive ideas, but three point to the possibility of a very different future for colleges and universities。

1) College for life, rather than just four years。(3)The primary recommendation of the Georgia Tech report is that the university turns itself into a place for lifelong learning that allows students to “associate rather than enroll。”

“Students who we educate now are expected to have a dozen occupations,” Bras said。“So a system that receives students once in their lives and turns them out with the Good Housekeeping seal(印章) of approval to become alums (校友) and come back on occasion and give money is not the right model for the future。”

2) A network of advisers and coaches for a career。If education never ends, Georgia Tech predicts, neither should the critical advising function that colleges provide to students。The commission outlines a plan in which artificial intelligence and virtual tutors help advise students about selecting courses and finding the best career options。But even for a university focused on science and technology, Georgia Tech doesn’t suggest in its report that computers will replace humans for all advising。

3) A distributed presence around the world。Colleges and universities operate campuses and require students to come to them。In the past couple of decades, online education has grown greatly, but for the most part, higher education is still about face-to-face interactions。

9 Georgia Tech imagines a future in which the two worlds are blended in what it calls the “atrium” — a place that share space with entrepreneurs and become gathering places for students and alumni (校友)。

10 In some ways, as the report noted, the atrium idea is a nod to the past, when universities had agricultural and engineering experiment stations with services closer to where people in the state needed them。

11 Whether Georgia Tech's ideas will become real is, of course, unclear。But as Alexander told me after reading it, “There is a strong emphasis on flexibility and transformation so they can meet emergent trends。” This is clear: colleges and universities are about to undergo a period of deep change — whether they want to or not — as the needs of students and the economy shift。

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